Almost all petroleum products consist of oil distilled at oil refineries. Refineries produce petroleum products according to the quality and need of crude oil.Oil is generally preferred as energy: as fuel oil and gasoline to various degrees. Refineries can also produce other chemical substances, some of which are used to obtain plastics or other products. Since petroleum contains sulfur, a large part of this sulfur is also decomposed as an oil product. Hydrogen and carbon can also be used as products in the form of petroleum coke. Hydrogen is often used as a catalyst in other processes at the refinery or in hydrodesulfurization.
The main products of oil refineries
- Petrochemical products (Plastics)
- Jet fuel A1
- Jet fuel 54 (JP54)
- EN590 10 PPM
- Ultra low Sulphur
- Base oil (All Grade )
- Euro 4
- High Sulphur Fuel Oil-HSPO
- Urea Fertilizer 46% Nitrogen (Prilled/ Granular)
- NPK Fertilizer Export Quality Grade
- Diammonium Phosphate (DAP)
- Mono Ammonium Phosphate (MAP)
- Ammonium Nitrate
- Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)
- Rock Phosphate
- Potassium Chloride KCL Red/White
- Mono Calcium Phosphate
- Ingredients kayganlastirci
Upstream, or exploration and production (E&P) companies, find reservoirs and drill oil and gas wells. Midstream companies are responsible for transportation from the wells to refineries and downstream companies are responsible for refining and the sale of the finished products.
If you are planning to embark on a career in the oil and gas industry, or the wider energy sector, this industry offers a number of enticing benefits. Salaries for this sector are typically higher than average, and this is due to several factors, such as the educational background required.
Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Understanding LPG and LNG Fuel
Each of these types of fuels have both similarities and differences. LPG fuel, or liquefied petroleum gas, is a liquefied gas and is a byproduct derived while extracting crude petroleum. ... LNG fuel, or liquefied natural gas, is a natural gas converted to liquid form through liquefaction.
“LPG is going to be priced cheaper. If we buy LNG (from abroad), it will reduce our dependence on crude oil. ... Oil Secretary Tarun Kapoor said LNG is a clean fuel, convenient and a bit cheaper than other fuels. “It is very appropriate for long-distance transportation.”
LNG, in general terms, is considered safer than LPG. LNG is lighter than air while LPG is heavier. Natural gas liquid (NGL): it may also have ethane, propane, butane and some condensate.
CNG is an abbreviation of “Compressed Natural Gas” whereas LPG is an abbreviation of “Liquefied Petroleum Gas”. The primary difference between CNG and LPG lies in the components that make up these fuels. While CNG is primarily made up of Methane, LPG is primarily made up of propane.
CIF TRANSACTION PROCEDURE
1. Buyer issues Irrevicable Corporate Purchase Order (ICPO) İN Sellers name along with Company, and along with buyer’s passaport copy.
2. Seller issues SPA to Buyer. Within 48 hours Buyers signs seals and returns the SPA to seller, Seller gives Partial proof of products, PPOP authentication/approval legalized by the authority Russian Ministry of energy.
3. Seller notarizes to contract, at its own expenses and submits Partial Proof of Product (via email) as follows:
(A) Seller Irrevocable Commitment to Supply
(B) Statement of availability of product
(C) Certificate of origin
(D) Proforma invoince fort he firs value shipment
3.Within 7 banking days, Buyer’s bank send non-Transferable Irrevocable Operative SBLC via MT760 or DLC via MT700 according to seller’s fiduciary bank verbiage to seller nominated bank account for first mounth shipment, should buyer fail to issue payment instrument within 7 banking days, buyers will make cash deposit of $400,000 by TT wire transfer for security guarantee to enable seller charter vessel and commence shipment, and this payment will be deducted from the total cost of product after inspection at discharge port.
4. Seller Issues Full POP Documents to the Buyer’s alongside with the 2% Performance Bond (PB)
a) Copy of license to export, issued by the department of the Ministry of Energy, Russian Federation.
b) Copy of Approval to Export, issued by the Ministry of Justice, Russian Federation.
c) Copy of statement of availability of the product.
d) Copy of the refinery commitment to produce the product.
e) Copy of Transnet contract to transport the product to the loading port.
f) Copy of the port storage agreement.
g) Copy of the charter party agreement to transport the product to discharge port.
h) Copy of Vessel Questionnaire 88.
i) Copy of Bill of Lading.
j) SGS Report an loading port.